In applications where space is limited and particularly where solid height is restricted, springs designed from rectangular or keystoned wire are often selected. These springs are commonly referred to as die springs. Springs made from rectangular wire, with the width of the rectangle perpendicular to the spring axis, store more energy in a smaller space than equivalent round wire springs.
Even though stress distribution around the rectangular cross section is not as uniform as the round wire section, the energy storage capacity is higher because more material can be incorporated into the allocated space. Rectangular wire is more costly than round wire, but less costly than keystoned wire. Keystoned wire is processed specially so that deformation during spring winding or coiling causes the cross section to become approximately rectangular.
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